acne (2) allergy (1) body (1) cancer (3) chemical (2) cholesterol (1) claim (1) definition (1) diet (1) disease (1) health insurance (3) healthy food (2) healthy home (1) heart (2) history (2) invention (1) learn (1) lung (1) medicine (1) natural and herbal (4) news (1) oil (1) Removal (1) skin (2) surgery (2) therapy (1) tips (12) Treatments (2) virus (1) vitamin (1) weight loss (1) yoga (1)


Chloroform (also known as trichloromethane and methyl trichloride) is a chemical compound with formula CHCl3. It does not support combustion in air, although it will burn when mixed with more flammable substances. It is a member of a subset of environmental pollutants known as trihalomethanes, a by-product of chlorination of drinking water and a long-standing health concern.
Read More >> Read More......

Surgery History

Surgery (from the Greek cheirourgia - lit. "hand work") is the medical specialty that treats diseases or injuries by operative manual and instrumental treatment. Surgeons are medical practitioners who specialize in surgery.

History of surgery

The earliest known surgical procedure is trepanation, also known as trephinning or trepanning, in which a hole is drilled or scraped into the skull, leaving the membrane around the brain intact. A trepanned cranium found near Kiev, Ukraine, is the oldest yet found, dating back to 7300-6220 BC. Trepanation attempts to address health problems that relate to abnormal intracranial pressure, and has been found in cultures around the world. Modern surgery has been largely abandoning this practice, however.

Researchers have also uncovered an Ancient Egyptian mandible, dated to approximately 2750 BC, having two perforations just below the root of the first molar, indicating the draining of an abscessed tooth. Recent excavations of the construction workers of the Egyptian pyramids also led to the discovery of evidence of brain surgery on a labourer, who continued living for two years afterwards.

The Edwin Smith papyrus is the oldest known surgical text, dating back to the 1600s BC, although it contains information dating back to 3000 BC. It is an ancient Egyptian textbook on surgery, and describes in exquisite detail the examination, diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of numerous ailments.

Susrutha (about 400 B.C) - also spelt Susruta or Sushrutha - is an important figure in the history of surgery. He lived, taught and practiced his art of surgery on the banks of the Ganges in the area that corresponds to the prensent day city of Benares in North-West India. Because of his seminal and numerous contributions to the science and art of surgery he is also known by the title "Father of Surgery". Much of what is known about this inventive surgeon is contained in a series of volumes he authored, which are collectively known as the Susrutha Samhita.

Although surgeons are now considered to be specialised physicians, the profession of surgeon and that of physician have different historical roots. For example, the Hippocratic Oath warns physicians against the practice of surgery, specifiy that cutting persons laboring under the stone, i.e. lithotomy, an operation to relieve kidney stones, which was to be left to such persons as practice .

By the thirteenth century, many European towns were demanding that physicians have several years of study or training before they could practice. Surgery had a lower status than pure medicine, beginning as a craft tradition until Rogerius Salernitanus composed his Chirurgia, which laid the foundation for the species of the occidental surgical manuals, influencing them up to modern times.

Among the first modern surgeons were battlefield doctors in the Napoleonic Wars who were primarily concerned with amputation. Naval surgeons were often barber-surgeons, who combined surgery with their main jobs as barbers.

In London, an operating theatre or operating room from the day before modern anaesthesia or antiseptic surgery still exists, and is open to the public. It is found in the roof space of St Thomas Church, Southwark, London and is called the Old Operating Theatre.

Before advent of anaesthesia, surgery was a traumatically painful procedure and surgeons were encouraged to be as swift as possible to minimize patient suffering. This also meant that operations were largely restricted to amputations and external growth removals. In addition, the need for strict hygiene during procedures was little understood, which often resulted in life threatening post-op infections in patients.

Beginning in the 1840s, surgery began to change dramatically in character with the discovery of effective and practical anaesthestic chemicals such as ether and chloroform. In addition in relieving patient suffering, anathesia allowed more intricate operations in the internal regions of the human body. In addition, the discovery of muscle relaxants such as curare allowed for safer applications.

However, the move to longer operations increased the danger of dangerous complications since the prolonged exposure of surgical wounds to the open air heightened the chance of infections. It was only in the late 19th century with the rise of microbiology with scientists like Louis Pasteur and innovative doctors who applied their findings like Joseph Lister did the idea of strict cleanliness and sterile settings during arise.
Read More >> Read More......

Four Things You Didn’t Know About Natural Medicine

If natural medicine still sounds too alternative for you, here are four things that may help mainstream the concept for you.

It’s not so “out there”

In addition to the 38 percent of all adults in the United States who have tried natural medicine, nearly 12 percent of children have used complementary and alternative (CAM) therapies. Veterinarians use it on pets, too. “It’s not just the fringe anymore,” says Donald B. Levy, MD, medical director of the Osher Clinical Center for Complementary and Integrative Medical Therapies at Brigham and Women’s Hospital in Boston.

“It’s more widespread.” In fact, CAM is considered standard treatment in many European countries (including Germany, which regulates herbs, and France, where hospitals widely use acupuncture), so sometimes alternative treatments new to the States have already been researched and used for years abroad.

It’s a spa thing

Our strong desire to “heal” ourselves with natural medicine has made alternative therapies hot items at spas and resorts. Some treatments may sound like a wacky mix of the scientific and the spiritual—Crystal Bowl Sound Healing (at Rancho La Puerta Fitness Resort and Spa in Baja California) claims to activate alpha waves in the brain; Spirit Flight treatment (at Miraval in Tucson, Arizona) is touted as a blend of energy medicine, full-body massage, acupuncture, craniosacral therapy, and spinal alignment, along with indigenous ceremonial rituals.

But treatments like these are very popular, and an arm of the National Institutes of Health called the National Center for Complementary and Alternative Medicine (NCCAM) is researching their validity. In fact, you may be able to take part in a clinical trial for an alt med therapy being studied at a university near you. For information, visit the NCCAM’s Web site.
Read More >> Read More......

How Heart Surgery May Extend Your Life

In 2005 doctors performed about 280,000 bypass surgeries to route new vessels around blocked arteries and 800,000 angioplasties to open blocked arteries. Another 100,000 Americans had heart valves surgically repaired or replaced.

If your doctor says you need an intervention to fix or protect your heart, you'll have some pressing questions.

• What type of procedure is the best choice for you?

• What are the risks?
• What kinds of improvements can you expect?

Can surgery extend your life?

While heart surgery can't cure heart disease, it should relieve chest pain and help you live longer.

Patients with serious coronary artery disease who undergo bypass surgery are nearly 50% more likely to be alive in five years than patients who receive drug treatment alone.

Angioplasties can also relieve chest pain, but the results are not as lasting. More than 40% of the patients who receive angioplasty need bypass surgery within a decade.

Long-term survival following the two procedures is just about the same, according to a recent overview of both by researchers at Stanford University School of Medicine. Results for almost 10,000 patients from 23 clinical trials in the United States and Europe showed 98.2% survival for bypass surgery and 98.9% for angioplasty.
Read More >> Read More......

Survive a Bad Air Day

If you’ve ever seen a brown haze of pollution hanging over your city, most likely your response was, “Ugh. How can I avoid breathing that stuff?” But let’s face it, even if you know it’s a bad air day, you probably need to grab some sunshine, get in an outdoor run, or get to work.

Polluted air contains particulate matter, lead, ozone, nitrogen dioxide, carbon monoxide, and sulfur dioxide—all of which can cause problems in people with allergies or asthma. Even if pollution is low, airborne pollen and mold can make a trip outdoors particularly daunting for people with respiratory conditions.

How to tell if it’s a bad air day

The first step toward protecting your lungs is to know your city or town. More than 115 million people nationwide still live in counties with pollution levels considered potentially harmful to their health.

Air quality varies widely around the United States. Ozone, for instance—which can pose a major problem for asthmatics—tends to be more prevalent in urban areas, though it can be found in suburban and rural areas as well. If you live in Fargo, N.D.—one of the cities with the cleanest air in the nation—you are likely to breathe easier than if you live in Los Angeles, which has the highest ozone levels in the country.

Local weather stations often provide this information on their websites, and radio stations typically give ozone alerts. In addition, many websites can tell you if pollutants, ozone, or pollen counts are high in your area on any given day.

*, a site run by federal government agencies, provides a daily Air Quality Index as well as other useful information on air quality.
* The American Academy of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology’s National Allergy Bureau has a daily mold and pollen report.
* The American Lung Association rates the air quality annually by state at
* The Environmental Protection Agency has a feature on its website called “My Environment”, which gives you an up-to-date air-quality forecast for your zip code.
* offers a four-day allergy forecast using data from the National Weather Service.

However, it’s not just pollen or air pollution that can trigger problems. Michael Benninger, MD, the chairman of the Head and Neck Institute at the Cleveland Clinic, in Ohio, says changes in barometric pressure and temperature can also spell trouble for people with allergies to pollen and mold, people with severe sinus symptoms, and even people without allergies.
Read More >> Read More......